• Introduction to, and fundamental of Data Processing – brief history and conventional data processing methods, Manual Methods and mechanized methods. Classification of systems and their relative merits; Closed and open loop systems: effect time-lag, the total system approach and objectives, total systems and sub-systems. Data processing and management information system approach: the organisation of MIS including the use of mechanical and electronic accounting machines, flow charting and the principles of system design and documentation. Management uses of the information output as basis for developing criteria and systems. Information needs of management and design of MIS. Computer and data processing: evolution of the computer system input. Output and central processing unit. Hardware and software. Introduction to common computer programme language use in business (COBOL, PORTRAN, SPSS, etc). Electronic Data Processing (EDP) methods, batch processing, real-time processing and the management of EDP. Business system systems hierarchical structure of organisation and the sub-optimisation issue.