Cell biology is a branch of science that study cell structure and function. This aspect focuses on mechanisms of cell in mitosis and meiosis. Most importantly, it emphasizes on chromosomes activities during cell growth and development, and reproduction. Genetics on the other hand deals with inheritance and variation. Inheritance is the backbone of genetics and is an important topic to cover in an introduction to genetics. Long before DNA had been discovered and the word ‘genetics’ had been invented, people were studying the inheritance of traits from one generation to the next.
Genetic inheritance occurs both in sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. In sexual reproduction, two organisms contribute DNA to produce a new organism. In asexual reproduction, one organism provides all the DNA and produces a clone of themselves. In either, genetic material is passed from one generation to the next.
Genes are the basic unit of heredity. The genes of an individual are determined by their parent or parents. A bacteria that is born by one parent cell splitting into two cells and has the exact same genes as their one parent cell.
A gene is a specific segment of a DNA molecule that holds the information for one specific protein. DNA molecules have a unique code for each gene which codes for their specific protein. Some organisms can have more than 100,000 different genes so they will have 100,000 unique sequences of DNA ‘code’.